Female Factor Infertility
The most common factors affecting femal fertility include the following :
One of the most frequent causes of ovulation disorders is polycystic ovary syndrome, which leads to the deregulation of hormone communication between ovary, pituitary and hypothalamus resulting in the production of elevated levels of androgen and affecting ovulation. Premature ovarian failure, obesity, thyroid disorders, elevated prolactin levels, are also factors that lead to ovulation disorders.
Fallopian Tube Factor
The stenosis or the occlusion of the fallopian tubes prevents the course of spermatozoa to the egg or the fertilised egg to the uterus. Some infections and inflammations, such as those caused by the microorganism Chlamydia trachomatis, or adhesions created by surgeries, are the main reasons for the blockage of fallopian tubes.
In women with endometriosis, endometrial tissue is observed in parts of reproductive tract outside the uterus, such as the ovaries and the fallopian tubes. This tissue responds to the hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle of the woman, it grows and bleeds the same way as endometrium. This can cause inflammation and scars and affect the function of the ovaries, the fallopian tubes and the implantation of embryo to the uterus.
The presence of uterine fibroids it is likely to influence the female fertility by preventing normal embryo implantation. Anatomical malformations such as unicornuate uterus, didelphys uterus, bicornuate uterus, septate uterus could be possible causes of subfertility.
During pregnancy and as embryo grows the immune system of the mother undergoes radical changes to protect the fetus. In some cases, when the immune system fails to adapt the necessary changes, the development of the fetus is impaired. In other cases, the immune system of the man or the woman, develops antibodies against the spermatozoa and thereby reducing their ability to fertilize the egg.
Excessive stress and anxiety, increased consumption of alcohol and smoking are lifestyle factors affecting female fertility. Also the postpone of childbearing until later in life could be an important parameter in achieving a pregnancy, as female fecundity is closely related to the biological age.